Research

First time in 125 years
One of the Most Important Breakthroughs in Psychology

In the 1890s, Hugo Munsterberg began writing about the application of psychology to industry, law, and other fields.

Even though the field of psychology has existed for over 125 years, and all these years psychologists have been trying to find ways to increase IQ because higher intelligence is so important for success, psychologists could not discover an effective way to increase IQ scores.

Now, finally, they have found a way and different teams have proven that it works repeatedly through various scientific studies.

Science-Based Method:
Proven by Research
Summary of Some Important Scientific Research Studies ...

Below is some information from leading scientists and researchers on intelligence about their research on the method on which our advanced software is based.


Research Study #1

Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory

by Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, John Jonides, and Walter J. Perrig

Edited by Edward E. Smith, Columbia University, New York, NY

Abstract

Fluid intelligence (Gf) refers to the ability to reason and to solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge. Gf is critical for a wide variety of cognitive tasks, and it is considered one of the most important factors in learning. Moreover, Gf is closely related to professional and educational success, especially in complex and demanding environments. Although performance on tests of Gf can be improved through direct practice on the tests themselves, there is no evidence that training on any other regimen yields increased Gf in adults.

Furthermore, there is a long history of research into cognitive training showing that, although performance on trained tasks can increase dramatically, transfer of this learning to other tasks remains poor. Here, we present evidence for transfer from training on a demanding working memory task to measures of Gf. This transfer results even though the trained task is entirely different from the intelligence test itself. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the extent of gain in intelligence critically depends on the amount of training: the more training, the more improvement in Gf. That is, the training effect is dosage-dependent.

Thus, in contrast to many previous studies, we conclude that it is possible to improve Gf without practicing the testing tasks themselves, opening a wide range of applications.


Research Study #2

Extending Brain-Training to the Affective Domain: Increasing Cognitive and Affective Executive Control through Emotional Working Memory Training

by Susanne Schweizer, Adam Hampshire, Tim Dalgleish

Part of Abstract

... These findings constitute preliminary evidence that intensive cognitively demanding brain-training can improve not only our abstract problem-solving capacity, but also ameliorate cognitive control processes (e.g. decision-making) in our daily emotive environments.


Research Study #3 

Short- and long-term benefits of cognitive training

Susanne M. Jaeggi, Martin Buschkuehl, John Jonides, and Priti Shah

Edited by Dale Purves, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC

Abstract

Does cognitive training work? There are numerous commercial training interventions claiming to improve general mental capacity; however, the scientific evidence for such claims is sparse. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence that certain cognitive interventions are effective. Here we provide evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive (often called "brain") training. However, we demonstrate that there are important individual differences that determine training and transfer. We trained elementary and middle school children by means of a videogame-like working memory task. We found that only children who considerably improved on the training task showed a performance increase on untrained fluid intelligence tasks.

This improvement was larger than the improvement of a control group who trained on a knowledge-based task that did not engage working memory; further, this differential pattern remained intact even after a 3-mo hiatus from training. We conclude that cognitive training can be effective and long- lasting, but that there are limiting factors that must be considered to evaluate the effects of this training, one of which is individual differences in training performance. We propose that future research should not investigate whether cognitive training works, but rather should determine what training regimens and what training conditions result in the best transfer effects, investigate the underlying neural and cognitive mechanisms, and finally, investigate for whom cognitive training is most useful.


Research Study #4

Study on Improving Fluid Intelligence through Cognitive Training System Based on Gabor Stimulus

by Qiu Feiyue ; Coll. of Educ. & Technol., Zhejiang Univ. of Technol., Hangzhou, China ; Wei Qinqin ; Zhao Liying ; Lin Lifang

Abstract

General fluid intelligence (Gf) is a human ability to reason and solve new problems independently of previously acquired knowledge and experience. It is considered one of the most important factors in learning. One of the issues which academic people concentrates on is whether Gf of adults can be improved. According to the Dual N-back working memory theory and the characteristics of visual perceptual learning, this paper put forward cognitive training pattern based on Gabor stimuli. A total of 20 undergraduate students at 24 years old participated in the experiment, with ten training sessions for ten days.

Through using Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices as the evaluation method to get and analyze the experimental results, it was proved that training pattern can improve fluid intelligence of adults. This will promote a wide range of applications in the field of adult intellectual education.

Model of Working Memory

Baddeley's model of working memory

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to describe a more accurate model of short-term memory. Baddeley & Hitch proposed their tripartite working memory model as an alternative to the short-term store in Atkinson & Shiffrin's 'multi-store' memory model (1968). This model is later expanded upon by Baddeley and other co-workers and has become the dominant view in the field of working memory. However, alternative models are developing (see working memory) providing a different perspective on the working memory system.

The original model of Baddeley & Hitch was composed of three main components; the central executive which acts as supervisory system and controls the flow of information from and to its slave systems: the phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad. The slave systems are short-term storage systems dedicated to a content domain (verbal and visuo-spatial, respectively).

In 2000 Baddeley added a third slave system to his model, the episodic buffer. Baddeley & Hitch's argument for the distinction of two domain-specific slave systems in the older model was derived from experimental findings with dual-task paradigms. Performance of two simultaneous tasks requiring the use of two separate perceptual domains (i.e. a visual and a verbal task) is nearly as efficient as performance of the tasks individually. In contrast, when a person tries to carry out two tasks simultaneously that use the same perceptual domain, performance is less efficient than when performing the tasks individually.

What a Popular Technology Magazine Says ...

Forget Brain Age: Researchers Develop Software That Makes You Smarter

by Alexis Madrigal in the Wired Magazine at
http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/04/smart_software

Brain researchers for the first time claim to have found a method for improving the general problem-solving ability scientists call fluid intelligence, otherwise known as "smarts."

Fluid intelligence was previously thought to be genetically hard-wired, but the finding suggests that with about 25 minutes of rigorous mental training a day, healthy adults could improve their mental capacities.

...

"The most important point of our work is that we can show that it is possible to improve fluid intelligence," said Martin Buschkuehl, a psychology researcher based at the University of Bern, Switzerland. "It was assumed that fluid intelligence was immutable."

Fluid intelligence measures how people adapt to new situations and solve problems they've never seen before. Fluid intelligence differs from crystallized intelligence, which takes into account skills and knowledge that have been acquired -- like vocabulary, grammar and math.

...

In a limited trial, he and his team were able to make 34 test subjects significantly better at answering IQ test questions after training them on a completely separate memory task.

...

But in this case, subjects trained on a complex version of the so-called "n-back task" -- a difficult visual/auditory memory test -- improved their scores on a set of IQ questions drawn from a German intelligence measure called the Bochumer Matrizen-Test. (The Bochumer Matrizen-Test is a harder version of the well-known Ravens Progressive Matrices).

Initially, the test subjects scored an average of 10 questions correctly on the IQ test. But after the group trained on the n-back task for 25 minutes a day for 19 days, they averaged 14.7 correct answers, an increase of more than 40 percent. (A control group that was not trained showed only a very slight performance increase.)

Buschkuehl's team postulates that the n-back task improves working memory -- how many pieces of information subjects can keep in their head -- as well as the ability to control the brain's attention. Fluid intelligence tests require those types of thinking, and the training improved performance in these underlying skills.

...

They are also working to increase the amount of training that users undergo. In the experiment reported in PNAS, the researchers did not find the upper-limit for improvement, suggesting that more training could yield even better mental performance gains.

"The improvement seems to be dosage dependent," Buschkuehl said. "We saw a linear increase in performance with increase in training time."

...

In the simplest version of the n-back task, a sequence of images is presented every few seconds and subjects are asked to match a picture to an identical one that came previously, say two pictures before it. (For example, in the picture above, the blue square should be in the same location.)

Buschkuehl's subjects, however, also heard a second stream of letters and had to match the sounds at the same time as they matched the visuals. This makes the task very challenging. And as the subjects got better, the gap between matching pictures and letters got bigger, making the task progressively more difficult.

The team has developed a new n-back computer program called Brain Twister, which they have translated into English, but is not available online.


Here are the results from our "basic" type training from a famous Biohacker and his team member

Dave Asprey is the founder of BulletproofExec.com and currently lives in Canada. At age 26, he made $6 million and was bankrupt at age 28. Now much older and wiser, he's been focused on increasing brain and body. He's advisor to many high powered people.

Here is part of an article from Dave's blog about his experiments with this type of training using another older software, which they no longer seem to recommend.

How To Add 2.75 IQ Points Per Hour of Training

The Wall Street Journal just publicized a scientifically proven technique you can use to increase your IQ: dual N-back exercises. This is one of the brain hacking techniques from The Bulletproof Executive program, and it's close to my heart because I've used it since 2009 with great success, boosting my IQ at least 18 points (I took standardized IQ tests before and after). Dave "only" gained 12 IQ points from it, but he didn't do as many sessions as I did, and he'd already raised his IQ with other methods.

From an efficiency perspective, that's incredible. I gained 2.75 IQ points for every hour of brain training I did.

N-back exercise is simple--a grid of 9 squares is presented on screen ...

Every few seconds one of the 8 squares of the grid (center one isn't used) lights up with a colored box and a letter is spoken aloud. This continues for 20 repetitions. Your goal is to press a key when the present location (visual) or letter spoken (audio) matches the one that occurred "N" ago. When you recognize a certain % of the repetitions by pressing the keys accurately, the software increases N by 1. You start with N = 2. One exercise consists of about 20 minutes of repeating the exercises. It doesn't really matter how high of "N" you reach--as long as you're challenged, you're raising your IQ.

Here's a graph of my N level for my first 20 sessions (total of just 6.5 hours of training):


 

See how long I was stuck at N = 4? It took my brain a few days to adapt and forge new neural pathways, but once I broke beyond 4, I was immediately able to process far more information--look at the graph skyrocket as my brain adapted to handling more information at once.

The best part about N-back training is that it's permanent. After the 20 sessions you see above I did no training for a full 8 months to see if I'd forget the skill and have to start over. The results were an astounding OPPOSITE of what I expected, as if my brain had further optimized itself during the 8 months off.

Here are my scores for another 14 sessions 8 months after I started the training:


 

My max N level is currently 9--a level I would not have dreamed of reaching when I was stuck between 3 and 4 for days and days.

I've used a Zeo to track my sleep patterns after N-back training to see what my brain was up to the following night. The result? Drastically higher REM sleep percentages, often between 30-40% of sleep--proof enough that the N-back training boosts brain optimization significantly. One night my REM even exceeded light:


 

So what does a higher IQ get you?

1. Faster problem solving

N-back training teaches your brain to juggle more factors at the same time than it could before. If you're trying to solve a problem, it's extremely useful to be able to remember all the factors you know at once. A classic example would be running through look ahead moves in a chess game. If you don't remember the 2nd and 3rd moves you planned, how can you design a strategy 5 moves ahead? N-back training is the answer.

2. A more insightful synthetic imagination

In Think And Grow Rich, Napoleon Hill talks about two kinds of imagination--synthetic imagination and creative imagination. Synthetic is the one we use the most, it's when our brains combine existing known information and derive new insights from it or see new patterns. Creative imagination is a bit different; creative involves flashes of insight that aren't necessarily related to what we already know. More on creative imagination later--I've noticed N-back training boosts my synthetic imagination significantly. After N-back training, you'll be able to solve every day problems and tasks faster and more easily because you'll "just see the answer," and your academic or career performance will soar.

3. A better memory

Dave first noticed the effects when he unconsciously memorized restaurant take-out orders for 10 family members so he could call them in. His family was floored but he didn't realize why until they told him they couldn't do it without writing things down. In both of our experiences, once you get new brain skills, there's no going back, and they immediately feel natural and like a part of you.

Highly recommended ... Dave's website and products ...

I love what Dave Asprey does to bring the latest practical research on brain/body through food and tools and techniques. I highly recommend every thing Dave offers. I have personally purchased a video training of 2 day live recording as well as "Brain Trainer" currently priced $895.

Here is link to Dave's bio. Full article is here. His focus is to deliver results rather than getting lost in "theoretical arguments".




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